Placemaking


Academic papers and other referenceable material about placemaking, especially in urban contexts

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 Title AuthorYear Synopsis 
Making urban places: Principles and guidelines for layout planning.Behrens, R. & Watson1997 In 1997, Behrens and Watson outlined a definition for the concept of place making. The definition created by Behrens and Watson at the time was that place making was considered to be the process through which an environment with a unique sense of place is created related to the local context and character. Behrens and Watson highlighted that through their case study of urban environments in South Africa it was evident that public spaces were being created of poor quality and lacking the local characteristics that the space required to be linked into the local context and that the spaces are not being appreciated by the local community because the community lacks connection to the space through its characteristics.

Policy: Placemaking

The City of Newcastle, NSW2012This policy document outlines the role of a local government in the place making process. It highlights principals of place making that foster the desired outcome of exercises: A sense of ownership by community, strong participation and reflection of desired needs and values. These are supported by a host of definitions, which aims to contextualize place-making at this local council within the wider planning field. A significant part of the policy is dedicated to the roles council must play: facilitation and communication with the community and as an administrative body. These guide the place making process to include correct public participation which will achieve the strong representation of the community’s needs and values. Additionally, the roles of council when embarking on projects as well as throughout its completion is prescribed in an effort to create consistent project outcomes. 
Licenced Business Use on Open Space City of Gosford, NSW 2016 This reference pointed that Gosford City Council realised that the undertaking business activities on public open space can benefit the community economically. Thus, even though the benefits that business activities is recognised, to take good use of this benefit and minimise the negative impacts on the community and environment is challenging. In that case, Gosford City Council proposed the ‘temporary licensing’ to control the activities and locations. Through this reference, it is easy to find that the government need to concern not only the benefits that public open space can create but also need to provide certain measures to control and minimise the negative impacts they may cause. 
Placemaking, Urbanism and the future of public open spacesThe Comfort Pursuit 2015 This article draws upon the idea that for a human to feel connected to a site we must be attached to it in some form and for it to do so the place must become apart of a humans daily or frequent life. The more people use a space, the more they become connected and therefor the more qualities they see and appreciate to which generates a place. The article depicts that a space can be bettered through enhancing connectivity, this increases the places usage and in tern results in a space to which is respected, loved and special to a higher volume of people. This would mean that place making isn’t about how modern or useful an open space is but rather how used and familiarised it is/can become and this in tern creates a place through the generation of healthier and happier residents/ users of the given place. 
Urban Regeneration: Creating Communities Through the Art of Placemaking The Dpartment of Planning and Infrastructure (WA) 2006 This document provides all the key principles and guidelines for effective place making development and details the importance of place making procedure and its ability to improve and regenerate the urban environment.
The conference explores the different aspects of place-making that contribute towards the creation of a place that attracts people. The conference provided links to WA planning policy and involved public participation to generate different opinions on place making. Place-making is a relatively new planning concept Urbathat has been recognised as a method to creating successful communities. Therefore this conference raises the profile of place-making and helps to explore its value, credibility and opportunity for future planning.
 
Placemaking Model Metropolitan Redevelopment Authority  The MRA place-making model was created to guide the roles in developing and redeveloping places. The place-making model outlines key phases during the creation of a new place.
Strengthening Community through Placemaking - Place affects our health and well-being Pawlik-Kienlen, Laurie 2015 The writer focuses on the power of placemaking, and the connections it forms between people and the environment through changes to public spaces. She states that peoples involvement and contribution to creating these spaces  and  our  surroundings,  allows  people  to  establish  a sense  of belonging and purpose, while also improving both our physical and emotional state.  She notes that as well as our lifestyle choices, diet and exercise, our communities and places we are surrounded with influences our physical, emotional and mental wellbeing. The entry gives evidence behind these statements, making note of a study done by public health researches from Philadelphia, on community factors influencing individual health.
What is Placemaking? Project for Public Spaces 2016 PPS defined the term of “place-making” which is about creating a vision around the places that based on community needs and aspirations of their daily experience. It can be convert into three simple steps. Firstly, gather opinions from different group or individual and analysis into a vision. Secondly, convert those vision into a feasible plan. Lastly, ensure the implementation of development program is sustainable. Also, they had identified 11 principles for creating better community place which can be follow and launch with place-making movement. 
The Lighter, Quicker, Cheaper Transformation of Public Spaces- Integrating ArtProject for Public Spaces 2016 The article argues that the successful public art can provide a strong sense for residence. The public art were described as an essential catalyst for place-making. Furthermore, this article point out how public open space can contribute to place-making in metropolitan area through the public art. It is believed that by providing the proper types of street art can not only build community morale but also can become central to the cultural identity of a place. The public art is described as a tool to enhance the vibrant in public open space. 
A Guide to Neighbourhood Placemaking in Chicago Project for Public Space and Metropolitan Planning Council 2008 This guide book aims to educate people who involved in the place-making process to have a better understating on various aspects such as: 1. How to analysis the area. 2. Define the aspects to create a successful place. 3. Ways to approach the issues that related on place making.
The role of streets within place making in cross-cultural contexts: Case studies from Adelaide, Australia and Georgetown, Malaysia Sivan, A. and S. Karuppannan.University of South Australia, Adelaide.2013 This document contrasts two case studies with a focus on the role of streets in place making activities. While this is somewhat limiting, it does provide a good focus on the differences of place making across cultures. A comparative analysis is used to contrast Adelaide and Georgetown across numerous attributes: Physical, Social, Economic, Environmental, Access and Mobility. Key differences are highlighted and scored, resulting in Adelaide streets being primarily used for mobility and access. The streets of Georgetown have a much wider scope, with a larger portion of use coming from social and retail activities on the streetscape itself. Overall these case studies highlight the importance of correct community consultation for place-making projects 
Placemaking – a better approach to delivering community infrastructure in greenfield developments.Urbis Pty Ltd 2015 This reference outlines the benefits of community input for place making with Sydney being its contextual background where there is a proposed community development and monitoring framework for a new community in outer suburban area. The reference discusses how community input is essential to the place making process for open spaces. To help optimise the community’s needs and desires for place making, early engagement with the existing community is necessary. This reference also discusses that particular focus groups should be consulted to respond to the recreational needs of the community.